International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2231-8186 </strong><br /><strong>DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</strong><br /><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br />International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) or (Int. J. Fundam. Phys. Sci) is an International Open Access Journal with OJS (Open Journal Systems) publishing quarterly and covering all parts of Sciences in Mathematics, Theoretical &amp; Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Geology, Computer Sciences, Civil, GIS, IT and etc. </p> <p><a title="Worldcat" href=";fq=+%28x0%3Aartchap-+OR+%28x0%3Ajrnl+x4%3Adigital%29+OR+%28x0%3Aarchv+x4%3Adigital%29%29&amp;dblist=638&amp;se=&amp;sd=&amp;fc=yr:_25&amp;qt=show_more_yr%3A&amp;cookie" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Worldcat</a></p> Fundamental Journals en-US International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences 2231-8186 Monitoring DSI and LANCASTER Indices for Study Dust & Sand Storm in Meteorological Mehrabad Station of Tehran. Abstract The first climatic factors affecting the phenomenon of dust and fine dust are collected, reconstructed, extended and completed in the form of DSI and Lancaster in Mehrabad meteorological station of Tehran was studied and analyzed. The results showed that in Mehrabad meteorological station in terms of temperature in 1371 the lowest value and in 1377, 1380, 1396 the highest value and in terms of humidity in 1396 the lowest amount of humidity and in 1379 the highest amount of humidity and in terms of rainfall in the year 1392 the lowest amount of precipitation and in 1398 the highest amount of precipitation and in terms of evaporation in 1388 the lowest amount of evaporation and in 1391 the highest amount of evaporation and finally in terms of number of dust days in 1377 the lowest number of days and in 1388 the highest number of days Dust has been recorded. Mehrabad station of Tehran in years showed DSI index, more than one number and Lancaster index, more than fifty number in most of the mentioned years, the values of temperature and evaporation are high and the values of precipitation and humidity are relatively low, which shows the direct relationship between the dust storm index (DSI index) and mobility index of sand dunes (Lancaster index) is almost too high and above the number It is noteworthy that in most of the mentioned years, Meteorological factors and data have been at Mehrabad station in Tehran. Rahman Sharifi Copyright (c) 11 1 Estimating Physical Properties of Confirmed Exoplanets: I. Calculation of essential planetary properties-Possible M-R cataloging of exoplanets <p>The discovery of extrasolar planets outside our solar system and around other stars is now well underway. In the presented paper, calculations of some physical properties for confirmed exoplanets have been done. We have estimated physical properties such as the semi-major axis for potentially habitable exoplanets, the mass of planets by applying Kepler's third law around the mass of solar, Jupiter, and Earth-mass, stellar luminosity, habitability zone for the inner center and outer regions, radial velocity amplitude, planetary equilibrium temperature (PET) or effective radiation emission temperature and planet density. The mass-radius (MR) relationship of planets was investigated for potentially habitable exoplanets of three different groups of extrasolar planets: Subterran (Mars-size), Terran (Earth-size), and Superterran (Super-Earths or Mini-Neptunes); introduced in PHL, and found well coefficient values for each group. The minimum and maximum values for the mass and radius of exoplanets have been selected from 0.1&lt; M &lt; 10<em> M</em><sub>⊕</sub> and 0.4 &lt; <em>R</em> &lt; 2.5 R<sub>⊕</sub> . The same MR relationship has also estimated the same properties for a larger number of confirmed exoplanets with a mass and radius of 0.1&lt; M &lt;100 M<sub>⊕</sub> and 0.4&lt; <em>R</em> &lt; 15 R<sub>⊕</sub> , respectively, resulting their classification within 7 groups of mass and radius, with good coefficient values for each group. This is a new, possible cataloging that may need more effort for concluding a better understanding of the properties and varieties of the exoplanets.</p> Bijan Nikouravan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals 2021-05-02 2021-05-02 11 1 17 29 10.14331/ijfps.2021.330146 On The Schottky Barrier Height Lowering Effect of Ti3SiC2 in Ohmic Contacts to P-Type 4H-SiC <p>In this paper, an experimental investigation into titanium (Ti) / aluminium (Al)-based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) has been presented. Electrical characterisation of the fabricated contacts showed that metal structures with an initial Ti layer yielded the lowest specific contact resistance (ρ<sub>c</sub>), with a mean value of 3.7×10<sup>-5</sup> Ω-cm<sup>2</sup> being achieved after annealing in argon (Ar) at 1000°C for 2 minutes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis illustrated the epitaxial relationship between the 4H-SiC and the as-deposited Ti layer, and, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, showed that after annealing a ~5 nm thick layer of Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> was present, epitaxially arranged with the 4H-SiC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the presence of the Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> metallic phase was more prevalent in the samples with Ti as the initial metal layer annealed at 1000°C, which corresponded with lower specific contact resistance. Fitting of experimental data to a thermionic field emission (TFE) model allowed the Schottky barrier height to be extracted; it was found that the lowest Schottky barrier heights were more prevalent where the most intense Ti<sub>3</sub>SiC<sub>2</sub> phases were observed during XRD analysis.</p> C. A. Fisher M. R. Jennings Y. K. Sharma A. Sanchez-Fuentes D. Walker P. M. Gammon A. Pérez-Tomás S. M. Thomas S. E. Burrows P. A. Mawby Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals 2014-09-30 2014-09-30 11 1 95 100 10.14331/ijfps.2014.330071 Giant Magnetoresistance and Oscillations In Interlayer Exchange Coupling In Co/Cu/Co Multi-Layers <p>The oscillations in interlayer exchange coupling between ferromagnetic layers which are Separated by a nonmagnetic spacer layer, manifests n oscillatory magnetic properties which depend on the thickness of Copper interlayer. Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy system. We have made multilayer films with alternating cobalt and copper thin films. The preliminary results are reported on microstructure and magnetization properties. The conductance between first and third film depends on the relative orientation of magnetization between them. This optimizes to large magneto resistance changes called Giant Magneto-resistance effect.</p> Haji Shirinzadeh Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals 2014-09-30 2014-09-30 11 1 89 94 10.14331/ijfps.2014.330070 Calculation of The Deposited Energy and Stopping Range For The Proton, Deuteron and Carbon Beams In Laser Fusion by Fast Ignition <p>The main goal of this paper is calculation of deposited energy and as a result evaluation of stopping range of the ionic beams of carbon, deuteron and proton. The deposited energy is the function of two parameters: (a) beam energy and (b) electron temperature. Also the stopping range depends on the temperature, ionic beam energy and density of fuel pellet. Our calculations show that with decreasing the stopping range of particle, the deposited energy is enhanced. In the same temperature and fuel density, carbon has less stopping range and more deposited energy but higher energy is needed to accelerate the beam , this causes carbon has less energy than others. However, deuteron has more stopping range and deposited energy in comparison with carbon also it has better beam gain in comparison with carbon. Stopping range and proton beam gain respect to the other fuels is placed in lower level , but the low threshold intensity to accelerate it, cause it obtain the high gain. The optimum beam gain of the proton is 150 while it is 75 for deuteron and 1 for carbon. The fuel geometry must be considered for more studies in order to increase the beam gain.</p> S.N. Hoseinimotlagh M. Zareie Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals 2014-09-30 2014-09-30 11 1 80 88 10.14331/ijfps.2014.330069 The Electromagnetic Radiation Mechanism <p>This paper suggested a mechanism for Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R); the mechanism is based on the Flip-Flop (F-F) of combined Circular Magnetic Field (CMF) and Electric Field (EF) produced by energetic charged particles, the action released the EM-R; while as the F-F generates EM-R, it is also achieved within specific Flipping Time (<em>t</em><sub>F</sub>), the inverse of which is the Flipping Frequency (<em>f</em><sub>F</sub>), the model is compared with Maxwell’s two transformations to elaborate differences and characteristics, hence when EM-R is better understood, that will reflect on the physical world and related human ideas and philosophies.</p> Mahmoud E. Yousif Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals 2014-09-30 2014-09-30 11 1 72 79 10.14331/ijfps.2014.330068 Features of Loschmidt's Number and Its Theoretical Frontiers <p style="text-align: justify;">Loschmidt's number has played an important role in the development of science and technology and in the establishment of various standards. However, despite advances in the technological methods of estimating Loschmidt's number, the nature of its formation remains unknown. The information that lies in the nature of this constant can be useful for understanding the properties of a physical vacuum and the character of processes of the interaction of matter in this environment. Basing on time and experiment-tested the laws of molecular physics and thermodynamics, some features of the host medium of micro-particles involved in the formation of Loschmidt’s number were identified, describing its nature and the previously unknown phenomena of fundamental pressure of a Universe. The characteristics of various physical and chemical processes occurring in systems associated with a vacuum and the behavior of heavenly bodies are considered from the perspective of this phenomenon’s existence.</p> M.E. Zhussupov Copyright (c) 2014 Fundamental Journals 2014-09-30 2014-09-30 11 1 62 71 10.14331/ijfps.2014.330067 Radiological Analysis of Suitability of Kitui South Limestone for use as Building Material <p style="text-align: justify;">Indoor exposure arises from the soils from which the building stands and the building materials used for construction. This is because all building materials contain certain levels of natural radionuclides <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K. Limestone is the most commonly used building material in Kenya due to its availability and low cost. The limestone from Kitui South has not been mined to process for use but limestone mining and processing plants were being set by the time of this study. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the suitability of the limestone for use as a building material before its mining and processing begin. The activity concentrations of the limestone samples were determined and the radium equivalent, external hazard index, gamma activity index and alpha index evaluated. The results showed that the radium equivalent activity for all the samples was below the recommended limit of 370Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> and all the radiation hazard indices were below a unit. Therefore, the limestone can be used as building material or for manufacture of building materials without any restrictions.</p> Bendibbie Munyao Mulwa David Muchori Maina Jayanti Pushotami Patel Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals 2013-06-30 2013-06-30 11 1 32 35 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330051 Spectral Analysis of Aeromagnetic Data over Part of the Southern Bida basin, West-Central Nigeria <p style="text-align: justify;">Qualitative and quantitative interpretations of aeromagnetic map over part of the Southern Bida Basin, West-Central Nigeria have carried out using spectral analysis. The aeromagnetic maps digitized along flight lines of 2km interval. The qualitative interpretation of the magnetic anomaly and first vertical derivative maps revealed that the area is intensely faulted with major faults trending East-West (E-W) and minor ones Northeast-Southwest (NE-SW) directions. The result obtained using the spectral method reveals two depth sources in the area, the deeper sources range from 2.81 to 3.24km, while the shallower sources range from 0.45 to 1.49km.The result also shows a linear depression with sedimentary accumulation trending E-W. The average sedimentary thickness in the region is about 2.90km.</p> Ikumbur Emmanuel Bemsen Onwuemesi Ajana Godwin Anakwuba Emmanuel Kenechukwu Chinwuko Augustine Ifeanyi Usman Ayatu Ojonugwa Okonkwo Churchill Chukwunonso Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals 2013-06-30 2013-06-30 11 1 27 31 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330050 Design of A Femtosecond Blue Pulse Generation System By Pumping Of Kn Crystal With Cr:LiSAF Lasers <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">In this paper, we described and simulated the generation of the blue pulse (460nm) by nonlinear KN(KNbO3) crystal , that pumped by femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF lasers. Our simulation shows that, by focusing on laser oscillator output pulses with characteristics such as 860nm wavelength, 200fs,330MHz repetition rate 14o Pico joule( PJ) energy in KN crystal with 3mm length at 22 0C by 15 mm lens in less than 20-micrometer spot size with single-pass produce pulses with 42pJ energy,425fs, 30% optical efficiency and 1% total efficiency.</span> </p> Hosein Karami Mohammad Taghi Soltanifard Reza Aghbolaghi Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals 2013-06-30 2013-06-30 11 1 24 26 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330049 Theoretical Review of Solar Radio Burst III (SRBT III) Associated With of Solar Flare Phenomena <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">This article broadly reviews our knowledge of theoretical solar radio burst type III (SRBT III) in the low-frequency region. The eruption mechanism of solar flares and type III are currently an extremely active area of research especially during the solar cycle is towards maximum. There is a particular focus on their physical properties, as opposed to microphysics such as that needed for the evolution and formation of this burst or particle acceleration as such. In this work, we summarize the related theory, model, significant parameters and relate it with the behavior of the burst in low range frequency. Although this is only a combination of all significant literature, it is hoped that it will give some idea on how to understand in detail on this burst.</span> </p> Z.S. Hamidi Ungku Ferwani Salwa Ungku Ibrahim Z.Z Abidin Z.A Ibrahim N.N.M. Shariff Copyright (c) 2013 Fundamental Journals 2013-06-30 2013-06-30 11 1 20 23 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330048 Equilibrium of Planets in The Solar System-A New Approach <p style="text-align: justify;">As per Newtonian laws of motion and gravitation, the gravitational force of attraction governs all the planets of the solar system. Here we discuss the equilibrium of planets in which gravitational force represents one side and the magnetic hold the other side. The planet achieves equilibrium in the solar field at that point where it's centrifugal (i.e., gravitational) force balances the magnetic hold of the sun. The sun develops magnetic flux on the planet according to its surface area, magnetic content, and rotational velocity.&nbsp; As per available data, calculations in this regard are in good agreement with the functions achieving rotational and orbital motions and equilibrium of planet, thus supporting our concept. Therefore, this theory provides the missing link explaining magnetic interaction with the centrifugal force of the planet to achieve equilibrium, hold, and motion.</p> D. P. Sheth Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 11 1 9 16 10.14331/ijfps.2021.330145 About Black Holes <p style="text-align: justify;">All kinds of waves occur for the disturbances in the quiet gravitational field. Different waves powered differently and propagated in the gravitational field. A black hole is the higher GFI (Gravitational Field Intensity) area. The rays do not possess, coming from a distant source when pass by the black holes, adequate strength to disturb in the higher GFI area of the black holes. Naturally, the rays take on a curve path as the provision in a circular area depends on the radius (distance), keeping distance according to the lower GFI area around the black holes’ center.</p> Sankar Palchoudhury Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 11 1 6 8 10.14331/ijfps.2021.330144 Einstein’s Misunderstanding of Time in the Time-Invariant Universe <p style="text-align: justify;">Einstein has kept time as the dimension of the space-time continuum that is supposed to be a fundamental arena of the universe. Our research confirms time is the duration of changes, i.e., motion run in the time-invariant universal space that has Euclidean shape, it is infinite. Black holes in the center of galaxies are rejuvenating systems of the universe. In these black holes old matter is transforming back into the fresh energy of elementary that AGNs are throwing in the intergalactic space in the form of huge jests. These jets are fresh material for new star formation. The universal process of continuous rejuvenation is eternal.</p> Amrit S. Šorli Štefan Čelan Copyright (c) 2021 Fundamental Journals 2021-03-26 2021-03-26 11 1 1 5 10.14331/ijfps.2021.330143 The Earth and Cosmic Harmonic Factor <p>We investigate the relation between Earth’s distances and other components of the universe. To obtain this relationship we supposed the distance between the earth and other celestial objects follows a constant value of 1.466 with a simple equation which is called, Harmonic Factor. To prove this idea, we find out the distance of celestial objects such as the moon, sun, galaxies, Local cluster, Supercluster, and Group of superclusters in terms of Earth radius with good accuracy. Moreover, we predict a new position for an unknown object or a group of objects, which have not found yet. The results for nearest distance values are very close with real and known values and for farthest objects, need more information in the future.</p> Elsiddieg Mohamed Ali Elamin Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2013-03-30 2013-03-30 11 1 18 19 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330047 A Survey on the Effects of Rural Guide-Plan of Lajim Village on its Development <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to consider, how Lajim Rural guide-plan has affected its textural, economic, social, and cultural development. The theoretical modeling of the study is in accordance with the present guide plans of the country and the previous studies done. In this study which is based on visiting and observing, the research has used a questionnaire to gather data. The sample of the study is households of Lajim village in Mazandaran province; from which 40 people were randomly selected. In this study, four hypotheses considered and data analysis has been presented descriptively and inductively. Statistical methods and independence model, applied for more analyzing. The results show that the guide-plan of Lajim, positively affected Lajim's development economically, culturally, and also socially. The authors provide some suggestions to improve rural guide-plans.</p> Alireza Gharakhani Saed Farajnejad ghadi Hoseinali Jamshidi Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2013-03-30 2013-03-30 11 1 15 17 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330046 Identification of Night-Time F- Region Currents from CHAMP Satellite Observations over Equatorial Africa <p style="text-align: justify;">The F-region currents are generally weak and difficult to detect. However, their contributions to the earth’s magnetic field variations are significant and cannot be ignored by the field modelers. CHAMP satellite has therefore provided a perfect opportunity to investigate the in-situ F-region currents on the night side of the equatorial region. The magnitudes of the current along all the three components of the earth’s magnetic field (X, Y, Z) are investigated. However, in this paper, we present only the results on the Y-component where interesting magnetic residuals were observed. The X and Z-components were rather masked in much noise and would require further filtering. The currents appear in both the pre-midnight and post-midnight sectors and are spatially confined to the equatorial region bounded by the Appleton anomaly. The magnetic residuals are generally observed in the northern hemisphere of an order of 0.8nT, which gives a height-integrated current density of about 1.3mA/m.</p> Adero Awuor Ochieng Paul Baki Peter Kotze Collins Mito Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2013-03-30 2013-03-30 11 1 9 14 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330045 A comparison of the influential factors creating conflicts between cities and its annexed village (Case study: Islamshahr and Shatereh) <p style="text-align: justify;">Considering the lack of consistency in these urban and rural areas in relation to several factors such as social, economic, cultural, physical and administrative, the amalgamation of the rural areas into urban areas leads to numerous problems. Therefore this paper tries to individually examine the role of each of the abovementioned factors in amalgamation of village areas into city districts. This research uses analytic method and documentary research including extensive field observation, and questionnaires which were completed by 220 households and it highlights that even though there are not significant social and managerial differences between Islamshahr city and Shatereh village, when considering cultural, economic and physical factors in these areas the difference is substantial thus, the results indicates that these differences are the consequence of the amalgamation of the villages into the cities.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Naghmeh MohammadPourlima Ali NooriKermani Ali Akbar Rezaei Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2013-03-31 2013-03-31 11 1 5 8 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330044 Determination of Escape Speed from de Broglie-Bohm Interpretation <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, we apply the standard quantization procedure to the Newtonian equation to obtain the Schrödinger equation. The wave function is obtained and subsequently the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation is applied to the wave function to yield the formulas for escape speed. It is shown that the usual Newtonian formula for escape speed is purely resulted from taking the asymptotic form of Bessel functions. We then extend our work to hydrogen atom and show that the work done to eject the electron away from proton is in discrete form. The ionization energy for ground state of hydrogen atom from escape kinetic energy method is obtained.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Ch’ng Han Siong Shahidan Radiman Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2013-03-31 2013-03-31 11 1 1 4 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330043 Comparison of Trends in Development of City Structures and Development of Urban Transportation <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper discusses trends in the development of future cities and the emerging new requirements to urban transportation. Trends in urban transportation will be investigated to conclude whether they are coherent with the visions of future cities or are able to fulfill the requirements. Origin and history of cities will be discussed to better understand the current status of city structures before future visions are presented. The same will be done for urban transportation.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> M. Asmus J. Kornatowska M. Luu G. Pechoc B. Potakowskyj H. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 11 1 76 81 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330042