International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps <p><a title=" International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science" href="https://fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><img src="https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/public/site/images/admin/96749653-3310442022301960-7899194878892965888-o.png" alt="" width="1499" height="351" /></strong></a></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2231-8186 </strong><br /><strong>DOI: 10.14331/ijfps</strong><br /><strong>Aims and Scope</strong><br />International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS) is an International Open Access Journal with OJS (Open Journal Systems) publishing quarterly and covering all parts of Sciences in Mathematics, Theoretical &amp; Experimental Physics, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Geology, Computer Sciences, Civil, GIS, IT and etc.</p> <p><a title="ORCID" href="https://sandbox.orcid.org/0000-0002-2154-5910" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://sandbox.orcid.org/0000-0002-2154-5910</a></p> <p dir="ltr"> </p> Fundamental Journals en-US International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science 2231-8186 Einstein’s misunderstanding of time in time-invariant universe https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/124 <p>Einstein has kept time as the dimension of the space-time continuum that is supposed to be a fundamental arena of the universe. Our research confirms time is the duration of changes, i.e., motion run in the time-invariant universal space that has Euclidean shape, it is infinite. Black holes in the centre of galaxies are rejuvenating systems of the universe. In these black holes old matter is transforming back into the fresh energy of elementary that AGNs are throwing in the intergalactic space in the form of huge jests. These jets are fresh material for new star formation. The universal process of continuous rejuvenation is eternal.</p> Amrit Šorli Štefan Čelan Copyright (c) 10 4 A comparison of the influential factors creating conflicts between cities and its annexed village (Case study: Islamshahr and Shatereh) https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/123 <p style="text-align: justify;">Considering the lack of consistency in these urban and rural areas in relation to several factors such as social, economic, cultural, physical and administrative, the amalgamation of the rural areas into urban areas leads to numerous problems. Therefore this paper tries to individually examine the role of each of the abovementioned factors in amalgamation of village areas into city districts. This research uses analytic method and documentary research including extensive field observation, and questionnaires which were completed by 220 households and it highlights that even though there are not significant social and managerial differences between Islamshahr city and Shatereh village, when considering cultural, economic and physical factors in these areas the difference is substantial thus, the results indicates that these differences are the consequence of the amalgamation of the villages into the cities.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Naghmeh MohammadPourlima Ali NooriKermani Ali Akbar Rezaei Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2013-03-31 2013-03-31 10 4 5 8 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330044 Determination of Escape Speed from de Broglie-Bohm Interpretation https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/122 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, we apply the standard quantization procedure to the Newtonian equation to obtain the Schrödinger equation. The wave function is obtained and subsequently the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation is applied to the wave function to yield the formulas for escape speed. It is shown that the usual Newtonian formula for escape speed is purely resulted from taking the asymptotic form of Bessel functions. We then extend our work to hydrogen atom and show that the work done to eject the electron away from proton is in discrete form. The ionization energy for ground state of hydrogen atom from escape kinetic energy method is obtained.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Ch’ng Han Siong Shahidan Radiman Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2013-03-31 2013-03-31 10 4 1 4 10.14331/ijfps.2013.330043 Comparison of Trends in Development of City Structures and Development of Urban Transportation https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/121 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper discusses trends in the development of future cities and the emerging new requirements to urban transportation. Trends in urban transportation will be investigated to conclude whether they are coherent with the visions of future cities or are able to fulfill the requirements. Origin and history of cities will be discussed to better understand the current status of city structures before future visions are presented. The same will be done for urban transportation.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> M. Asmus J. Kornatowska M. Luu G. Pechoc B. Potakowskyj H. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 76 81 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330042 Application of Log Periodic Dipole Antenna (LPDA) in Monitoring Solar Burst at Low Region Frequencies Region https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/120 <p style="text-align: justify;">The Sun is considered as one of the strongest radio sources and observation in radio region can provide information on structures throughout the solar atmosphere. In radio wavelengths, we could possible to investigate high quality images within an arc second resolution at different layers of the solar atmosphere. Solar monitoring in this wavelength makes various demands on the used antennas. Therefore, Logarithmic Periodic dipole Antenna (LPDA) was constructed for monitoring Sun in the range of (45−870) MHz to precisely match the environmental requirements. Our work focuses on preparation and performance of the antenna. Observation results of the site will also be highlighted. From the analysis, we found that the signal to noise ratio is 3.9 dB. We also make an effort analyze a y-factor of a data by select a range of frequency from 220 MHz till 250 MHz due to this range consists burst. By constructing and understanding the principle of the log dipole periodic antenna and then connect it to the CALLISTO spectrometer as receiver, some solar activities observations such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) can be done. In conclusion, the log-periodic dipole antenna (LPDA) is remains the simplest antenna with reliable bandwidth and gain estimates.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">solar activities</p> Z.S. Hamidi N.M. Anim N. N.S. Hakimi N. Hamzan A. Mokhtar N. Syukri S. Rohizat I. Sukma Z.A Ibrahim Z.Z. Abidin N.N.M. Shariff C. Monstein Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 72 75 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330041 The Best Strategy in Rain https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/119 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this paper is to consider the best strategy of motion, in the rain. In this paper, not only we considered the motion of object with standing vertically on the ground, but also we measured the motion of object, with angle too. Here we will show, whether the optimal speed-angle exists in any angle or in any speed, or not. If it is exists, then we can find the optimal speed or the optimal angle. We also find out the crucial factor for the optimal speed. A very clear solution of this problem is the result of using six variables in rectangle and ellipsoidal model. Moreover, here an interesting result, in comparison between motion of object in the same time and same distance, will appear. The motion of object considered in two and three dimensional coordinate system for rectangle and ellipsoid models. The discussed model also is applicable for other fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Seongtaek Seo Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 64 71 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330040 General Solution of Static Sphere of Perfect Fluid and Dust of Uniform Density Using Isotropic Line Element https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/118 <p style="text-align: justify;">The general solution of a static sphere of perfect fluid of uniform density using isotropic line element has been obtained by using the additional condition of continuity at the boundary C.D. Marathe J.J. Rawal Bijan Nikouravan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 61 63 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330039 Intra-Cavity Loss Element Method for Measurement of the Small Signal Gain of a TEA CO2 Laser https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/117 <p style="text-align: justify;">The small-signal gain coefficient of a TEA CO2 laser has been measured through the implementation of a variable polarization intra-cavity loss element. Charging voltage dependence of the gain property of the laser has been investigated. The advantage of this method is that no probe laser system is required. The results have been agreed with experimental data obtained by conventional oscillator-amplifier method.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> M. Aram Z. Porhasannejad E. Aghayare S. Behrouzinia Copyright (c) 2012 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 58 60 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330038 On The Effect of Electron-Hole Recombination in Disordered GaAs-Aa1-xALAs Multi-quantum Well Structure https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/116 <p style="text-align: justify;">The disordered electron-hole recombination in multi-quantum well was investigated using analytical method based on the rate equations. The results show extreme broad distribution of the recombination time which depends exponentially on the distances between the recombining excitons. The energies at each localised state shows an energy splitting between the electronic ground state and the first excited state of 0.0038eV.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Uno E. Uno Moses E. Emetere K.U Isah Umaru Ahmadu Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 52 57 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330037 Multielemental Analysis of Limestone and Soil Samples of Kitui South (Kenya) Limestone Deposits https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/115 <p>The results of analysis of heavy metal in limestone and soil samples from the limestone deposit areas of Kitui South, Kenya were reported in this paper. The analysis was carried out to assess the environmental impact of heavy metals in the region and provide necessary data on the extent of their spread that could be used as a basis for monitoring occupational exposure and the and subsequent environmental impact once mining and processing of limestone in the region starts. Limestone and soils were sampled from three major limestone deposit areas in the region of Kituvwi, Mwanyani and Ndulukuni and analyzed for heavy elemental content using 109Cd radioisotope excited EDXRF spectrometry technique in which sample pellets were directly irradiated. The major elements detected in soils were Ti, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Pb, while in limestone they were; Ti Mn and Zn.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Bendibbie Munyao Mulwa David Muchori Maina Jayanti Pushotami Patel Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 48 51 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330036 Assumed Higgs Boson Discovery Proved Einstein Right https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/114 <p>The selection-based Tempt Destiny experiment has provided evidence that the fundamental acts of selection are a dichotomy as are their effects. By applying this knowledge to evaluate the preliminary findings of the Higgs boson discovery, we find an omission error has taken place.</p> <p> </p> Manuel S. Morales Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-12-31 2012-12-31 10 4 44 47 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330035 A Study on Activity Concentration of Natural Radionuclide of Building Materials in Kochi https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/113 <p>The study of natural radiation exposure is of importance because it accounts for the largest contribution to the collective dose for the world population from all sources. Extent of exposure to natural radiation depends on the occupation, type of dwelling, location of habitation, and lifestyle of the population. All building materials contain various amounts of natural radionuclides as they are derived from the rocks and soils, which always contain natural radionuclides of Uranium (238 Dhanya Balakrishnan A G Umadevi Jose.P. Abraham M. Rajagopalan J Jojo Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-09-30 2012-09-30 10 4 41 43 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330034 An Evaluation of Mobility Trends until 2030 under the Aspect of Sustainability D. Haberfellner1*, https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/111 <p style="text-align: justify;">The public is more and more demanding sustainable solutions. In case of mobility, consumers have experienced turbulent years regarding the change in economic stability, showing it in rapidly changing fuel prices, energy costs, or in general, prices for any goods and resources. Mobility and the ability to stay mobile is a driver for today’s economy. People move to go to their work, goods and resources move around the globe to reach their customers. Thinking of restricted mobility capabilities may constitute an unpleasant scenario with serious consequences to common wealth. It is thus not surprising that the call for sustainable mobility, new concepts and technologies that are environmental friendly, economical and respect social values is more evident than ever. This paper discusses some of the current trends for mobility with a focus on their potential sustainable performance.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> D. Haberfellner H. Ostad-Ahmad-Ghorabi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-09-30 2012-09-30 10 4 35 40 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330033 Combined Investigations of Solar Bursts Type III and V https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/110 <p style="text-align: justify;">This review intended to update the results of combination two burst, type III and V in one solar flare event. Magnetic reconnection of both burst will be explained theoretically. Both bursts are found on 19th September 2011 associated with C-class flares on active region 1295. We concentrate on the mechanism of evolution the bursts which play a role in the event. It is found that type V burst appeared with five second after type III. There are a few sunspot regions on the solar disk but most are magnetically simple and have remained rather quiet. An interpretation of this new result depends critically on the number of sunspot and the role of active region 1295. Sunspot number is increases up to 144 with seven sunspots can be observed. During that event, the speed of solar wind exceeds 433.8 km/second with 2.0 g/cm3 density of proton in solar corona. Currently, radio flux is also high up to 150 sfu. Solar flare type C6 is continuously been observed in x-ray region for 24 hours since 1541 UT and a maximum C1 is detected on 1847 UT. Although the sources of both bursts are same, the direction and ejection explode differently. It is believed that the ejection of particles in type III burst is more compare type V. In summary, the behavior of type III should be critically understood in order to predict the formation of type V burst.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Z.S. Hamidi Z.Z Abidin Z.A Ibrahim C. Monstein N.N.M. Shariff Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-06-30 2012-06-30 10 4 32 34 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330032 The Beginning Impulsive of Solar Burst Type IV Radio Emission Detection Associated with M Type Solar Flare https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/109 <p style="text-align: justify;">First light detection of solar burst type IV in Malaysia in the region of 260 MHz till 380 MHz has been successfully detected on 5th March 2012. This significant solar burst variations is associated with solar flare type M level 2.0 occurred from 0412UT. Due to the effect, strong bursts that caused by extraordinary solar flares due to magnetic reconnection effect potentially induced in the near-Earth magneto tail. One possible reason behind the formation of this very complex long duration of this loop is the magnetic reconnection and disruption of the loops which is observed during flare maximum. Sunspot 1429 active region was a site of several intense in several days. In Malaysia, monitoring solar burst in radio region is just in beginning by involved the project under International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) since 2011. We also analyzed multi wavelength observation from different sites as continuity of the phenomenon. Observations presented in this paper confirmed that Malaysia can be one of the potential countries to focus on solar monitoring solar radio emission at low- broadband frequency (45-870) MHz using ground-based telescope due to 12 hours per day throughout a year.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Z.S. Hamidi Z.Z Abidin Z.A Ibrahim C. Monstein N.N.M. Shariff M. Sabaghi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-06-30 2012-06-30 10 4 29 31 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330031 Comparison slide zones by Nilsen method with active tectonic zones produce of Smf index https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/108 <p style="text-align: justify;">Slide zones under title erosion types related to more active tectonic factors for example stream length-gradient (Sl),ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), drainage basin shape (Bs), mountain front sinuosity (Smf), drainage basin asymmetry (Af) and hypsometric integral (Hi). This research is noticeable comparison produce slide zones by Nilsen. The active tectonic zones produce from Smf index under title one of the important active tectonic factors. Determination landform of geometry or morphometry factors is the one of best method for study and evaluation active tectonic. The first provided Dem maps in GIS software by topography, geology, tectonic maps participant with field activities. Then provided active tectonic map by Smf index into three class A, B, C and landslide hazard zonation map into five class stable zone, generally stable zone, stable moderately stable zone, moderately un-stable zone and talented to liquefaction zone. Comparison and conformity landslide hazard zonation map with hazard zonation into Smf index showed about percent 71(51120 hectare) moderately unstable zone and talented for liquefaction zone settled in A zone Smf map and percent 29 (20880 hectare) remained settled sequential percent 18 (12960 hectare) and percent 11 (7920 hectare) in B, C zone of hazard zonation active tectonic produce from Smf index. In other word in research showed relationship landslide zones produce landslide hazard zonation by Nilsen to active tectonic zones by Smf index in the study region.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> R. Sharifi M. pourkermani A. solgi Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-06-30 2012-06-30 10 4 24 28 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330030 Signal Detection Performed by Log Periodic Dipole Antenna (LPDA) in Solar Monitoring https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/107 <p style="text-align: justify;">This article describes signal detection by Log-Periodic Dipole-Antenna (LPDA) which designed for solar monitoring with very high-performance in 45 MHz till 870 MHz. The LPDA, consisting of 19-elements, achieves a gain higher than 10 dBi with low noise amplifier. It has successfully setup at National Space Centre, Banting on 15th February 2012. Our objective in this work is to detect any signal at National Space Centre, Sg. Lang, Selangor which connected with CALLISTO spectrometer. Detailed analysis also revealed the interference sources that caused interruption of solar signal. Specific range of frequency that considered a minimum Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) also has been done. We found that high level interference is received from FM-band (80 MHz – 108 MHz), from VHF-band and from UHF-band. In the UHF-band, we could recognize (beside a lot of analog-TV) two (2) DVB-T channels between 650 MHz and 700 MHz. The ‘comb’ of signals proves that the whole system is working correctly with good sensitivity. This feature can be used to check the system as part of periodic maintenance. Beside the established detection techniques, some improvization of LPDA is also highlighted. The noise floor at all frequencies below 3 dB is in fact not noise, but represents standing waves due to the fact that the LPD antenna is not matched to the 50Ω coaxial cable due to the small size of boom’s diameter. Total sensitivity can be improved by impedance matching of antenna and coaxial cable.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Z.S. Hamidi Z.Z Abidin Z.A. Ibrahim C. Monstein N.N.M. Shariff Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-06-30 2012-06-30 10 4 21 23 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330029 Do Solar Activities Cause Local Earthquakes? (New Zealand) https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/106 <p>The relationships between solar activities (sunspots, solar 10.7cm radio flux, solar irradiance, and solar proton events) and local earthquakes investigated in this paper. The geographical location of study is New Zealand area. All earthquakes data have been chosen for , from first of 1970 to Jun 2012. The study reveals the following conclusions: <strong>1)</strong> The total numbers of earthquakes strongly show annually an increasing in number of earthquakes in New Zealand from 42 years ago. <strong>2)</strong> The maximum earthquakes occur frequently around the minimum years of solar activities, <strong>3)</strong> The maximum earthquakes occurs in minimum years of sunspots number with a good correlation coefficient<strong>. 4)</strong> The maximum earthquakes occur in the minimum solar cm radio flux with strong correlation coefficient.</p> <p> </p> Bijan Nikouravan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-06-30 2012-06-30 10 4 17 20 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330028 Comparison of lateral rear force between two and four wheel steering in a vehicle with steer by wire system https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/105 <p style="text-align: justify;">One kind of steering systems in vehicles is Steering by Wire (SBW). Control and stability of this method are important issues. In fact the SBW system is very suitable for Four Wheel Steering systems. In this paper the SBW used for Four Wheel Steering system to take result. The effect of 4ws on turning is shown. When a 4ws system turns at low speed, the rear Wheels steer in the opposite direction as the front wheels, so that the maneuverability and parking of the system increases. At higher speed the rear wheels steer in the same direction as the front wheels, so that more stability and less lateral rear force are resulted. In this paper, a bicycle model is used for dynamic modeling for testing the stability and controllability. This model is built with the assumption theorem. Steer by wire is used for steering the rear and front wheels. The lateral rear force is estimated with a Hall Effect sensor.</p> M.Jafar Ostad Ahmad Ghorabi Copyright (c) 2012 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-03-31 2012-03-31 10 4 12 16 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330027 Assessment of Medical X-Ray Radiographic Screen-Films in Different Spatial Frequencies According To Detective Quantum Efficiency Computation https://www.fundamentaljournals.org/index.php/ijfps/article/view/104 <p style="text-align: justify;">In medical imaging, to make better images there are some measures such as detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) used to evaluate the image quality of each imaging system. Detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is one of the important measures in the assessment of image quality and detector performance. DQE of two types of screen-films namely Lanex Regular/T-Mat G/RA and Lanex Regular/T-Mat L/RA were determined using MTF and NPS data, separately. Moreover, gamma was calculated from characteristic curves for each screen film and photon flounce was estimated using published literature. DQE of the screen-films were computed for three optical densities 0.7, 1.0 and 1.4. The results show Lanex Regular/T-Mat G has better DQE than Lanex Regular/T-Mat L -especially at low frequency with higher contrast for diagnostic radiology purposes.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Hassan Khanmirzaei Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan Copyright (c) 2012 International Journal of Fundamental Physical Science https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2012-03-31 2012-03-31 10 4 9 11 10.14331/ijfps.2012.330026