The Nature of Force and the Dark Matter

Astrophysics and cosmology

  • Xingwu Xu Research Institute of Hefei Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co., Ltd. 599 Daihe Road, Hefei, Anhui 230012, P. R. China https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5851-3891
Keywords: nature of force, gravity, Gibbs free energy, dark matter

Abstract

There are different approaches for investigating the force as well as the gravity. Newton emphasized the mathematical meaning of gravity. Einstein’s gravity is geometry. The physical exploring for the gravity is still on the way. Le Sage investigated the nature of gravity, but his theory has many defects. This paper gives out a physical chemistry approach for the nature of force, which bases on gravitons’ reaction by introducing the concepts of Gibbs free energy change and holographic screen. The change of the Gibbs free energy results in the imbalance on the two sides of the holographic screen, it is the force. The change of force as the distance depends on the distribution of gravitons. For solar system, the graviton gas distributes in centre-radical pattern, so the inverse-square law is applicable. But in the galaxies, the distribution of the graviton gas is not in centre-radical, therefore the acceleration is just inversely proportional to the distance (not square of distance), which is equivalent to the centripetal force. The flatness of rotation curve can be explained without dark matter.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Xingwu Xu, Research Institute of Hefei Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co., Ltd. 599 Daihe Road, Hefei, Anhui 230012, P. R. China

Biography of Xingwu Xu

XingWu_Photo1.jpg
Xingwu Xu, deputy dean of the research institute of Hefei Guoxuan High-tech Power Energy Co; Ltd. The research areas are new energy storage, Li-ion batteries for new energy vehicles, new materials, dark matter, and dark energy, etc.

References

Bullen, K., & Haddon, R. (1967). Earth models based on compressibility theory. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 1(1), 1-13.

Capozziello, S., & Stabile, A. (2009). The Newtonian limit of metric gravity theories with quadratic Lagrangians. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 26(8), 085019.

Carlip, S. (2000). Aberration and the speed of gravity. Physics Letters A, 267(2-3), 81-87.

Edwards, M. R. (2002). Pushing gravity: new perspectives on Le Sage's theory of gravitation: Montreal: Apeiron.

Feynman, R. P., Morinigo, F. B., & Wagner, W. G. (2003). BOOK REVIEW: Feynman Lectures on Gravitation. European Journal of Physics, 24, 330.

Hofmeister, A., & Criss, R. (2017). Implications of Geometry and the Theorem of Gauss on Newtonian Gravitational Systems and a Caveat Regarding Poisson’s Equation. Galaxies, 5(4), 89.

Isaacson, W. (2007). Einstein: His life and universe: Simon & Schuster Audio, New York, USA.

Jammer, M. (1999). Concepts of force: A study in the foundations of dynamics: Courier Corporation.

Lin, C., & Shu, F. H. (1964). On the spiral structure of disk galaxies Selected Papers of CC Lin with Commentary: Vol. 1: Fluid Mechanics Vol. 2: Astrophysics (pp. 561-570): World Scientific.

Luković, V., Cabella, P., & Vittorio, N. (2014). Dark matter in cosmology. International Journal of Modern Physics A, 29(19), 1443001.

Marsh, G. E., & Nissim-Sabat, C. (1999). Comment on “The speed of gravity”. Physics Letters A, 262(2-3), 257-260.

Newton, I., Cohen, I. B., & Whitman, A. (1999). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: University of California Press.

Potcoava, M. C. (2009). Digital holography applications in ophthalmology, biometry, and optical trapping characterization.

Rubin, V. C., & Ford Jr, W. K. (1970). Rotation of the Andromeda nebula from a spectroscopic survey of emission regions. The Astrophysical Journal, 159, 379.

Stabile, A., & Scelza, G. (2011). Rotation curves of galaxies by fourth order gravity. Physical Review D, 84(12), 124023.

Van Flandern, T. (1998). The speed of gravity—what the experiments say. Physics Letters A, 250(1-3), 1-11.

Zwicky, F. (1937). On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae. The Astrophysical Journal, 86, 217

Published
2019-10-10
How to Cite
Xu, X. (2019). The Nature of Force and the Dark Matter. International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences (IJFPS), 9(3), 41-47. https://doi.org/10.14331/ijfps.2019.330130
Section
Articles